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According to this method, the upper deposits are younger and the lower deposits are older.
Basing on this principle, the cultural assemblages found in different layers can be assigned a chronological personality. In practice it is found that the mounds are disturbed9 by all sorts of pits and dumps.
The calibrated dates from the 1995 Old Kingdom pyramid samples tended to be 100 to 200 years older than the historical dates for the respective kings and about 200 years younger than our 1984 dates.
The number of dates from both 19 was only large enough to allow for statistical comparisons for the pyramids of Djoser, Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure. First, there are significant discrepancies between 19 dates for Khufu and Khafre, but not for Djoser and Menkaure.
Cathy Spude compiled the following dating information for use by the public and professionals.
1825: Aluminum first isolated (Encyclopedia Britannica 1973 (1): 693).
1939: Aluminum foil being used to wrap dried fruit, cream cheese, and for beer labels (Sacharow 1978: 111).
The deposit thus occurring forms layers depending on the nature of the material brought in by the people inhabiting the area.
But, even when the scientific methods of absolute dating are available, this method of dating has not lost its importance, as many a time we have to depend solely on relative dating.
Even when the absolute dates are available, we have to supplement the information with relative dating.
Stratigraphy is based on the law of superposition--like a layer cake, the lowest layers must have been formed first.
In other words, artifacts found in the upper layers of a site will have been deposited more recently than those found in the lower layers.
For example, if the cultural contents of the lower deposit are Mauryan in character, appropriately this deposit may be assigned a date between 400-200 B. Similarly, if the cultural equipment of the upper deposit are of the Sunga period, this deposit has to placed between 200-73 B. Quite often, the archaeologist decided the change of stratum on the basis of the feed of the deposit.