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Today, tribes do not have any formal, constitutionally protected government-to-government relationship with the United States unless recognized by the federal government. In the United States, American Indian tribes, as sovereign nations, set their own rules for membership.

Most Indian nations were recognized in the 18th and 19th centuries. In a sense, many American Indians possess something akin to dual citizenship: They are citizens of the United States, a sovereign nation, and also members of their respective tribes, also sovereign nations.

American Indian tribes, including many Bands of the Kumeyaay Nation, existed as sovereign governments long before Europeans came to North America.

Before the American Revolution, treaties were signed by American Indian nations with European governments.

Following independence, the United States government guaranteed continued federal recognition and treatment of tribes as sovereign governments in exchange for land. Historically, state governments — including California — have been hostile to the concept of recognizing tribes as governmental entities of equal stature. Supreme Court has repeatedly recognized tribal sovereignty in court decisions dating back more than 170 years. Georgia, ruled that Indian nations had the full constitutional right to manage their own affairs, govern themselves internally and engage in legal and political relationships with the federal government and its subdivisions. Cabazon (1987), the Supreme Court affirmed the right of tribes, as sovereign nations, to conduct gaming on Indian lands, free of state control, when similar gaming outside the reservation is permitted by the state for any purpose.

This guarantee included protected jurisdiction within the boundaries of reservations and other lands held in trust for tribes by the U. Under the Constitution of the United States, as well as numerous treaties and court decisions, the federal government undertook to protect tribes from the states, which have often coveted American Indian lands and assets and sought to impose their will on Indian tribes and people. This sovereignty was further recognized, while at the same time infringed upon, by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, passed by Congress in 1988.

Welcome to Mending the Sacred Hoop Technical Assistance Project (MSH-TA).

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The term “domestic violence” means violence committed by a current or former spouse or intimate partner of the victim, by a person with whom the victim shares a child in common, by a person who is cohabitating with or has cohabitated with the victim as a spouse or intimate partner, or by a person similarly situated to a spouse of the victim under the domestic- or family- violence laws of an Indian tribe that has jurisdiction over the Indian country where the violence occurs.

is to strengthen Tribal programs and Native organizations' ability to develop and enhance local responses to domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking and sex trafficking through training and tribal technical assistance.